The study of pathologies in Ancient Egypt and India. Medicine Of Ancient India
The first attempts to explain the development and occurrence of diseases from materialistic positions were taken by doctors who lived and worked in the most ancient centers of civilization and culture in Egypt, India, China, Greece. In their view, a human body is combination of different material components found in the natural environment (earth, water, air and fire).
Believed that the emergence and development of diseases associated with breakdown in communication and relationships of these components.
In Ancient Egypt, shows one of the earliest (late fourth – early third Millennium BC) descriptions of disorders of certain organs, particularly the brain and heart, and their role in the development of pathology. Believed that brain damage causes painful condition of other parts of the body (for example, paralysis of the limbs). A special role in the life of the body was given to the heart.
The Egyptians mastered the art of defining diseases by the pulse, which they watched at various points of the body. Moreover, they believed that the leading place in the life of the organism is the blood and “pneuma” — unknown and weightless substance from the air, the breath coming into the lungs, then the heart and moved around the body by the blood, the violation of the relation between them leads to the development of the disease.
This provision was the basis for the creation of two General pathological concepts of humoral and pneumatic. They knew that many harmful substances that change the blood and “pneuma”, is contained in the food, whereby was formed the idea about the healing properties of the “cleansing” procedures (emetics, enemas, diuretics, diaphoretics, etc.), but for removal of “tainted” blood recommended blood-letting.
In the treatise “Charaka Samhita” (I-II centuries ad) and “Sushruta Samhita” (IV) provides detailed descriptions of morphological changes at the 136 diseases; however, the vital functions of the body explained through the interaction of its three main substances of air (wind), fire and water. The carrier air in the body counting the breath (prana) is the basis of all life phenomena. The fire was believed to have distributed vital heat through the bile, and the bearer of the water believed mucus.
Under health understand the rational ratio of these three substances that contribute to the correct commit of the life functions of the body, the normal state of the senses and clarity of mind. It was recognized that indeed the harmonious combination of three substances in the body is extremely rare. Strong deviations from equilibrium (due to unhealthy diet, bad water, abuse of wine, physical stress, weather changes, disturbances regime and lifestyle) cause disease.